For two years, he had been preparing to smash the world record and finish a marathon in under two hours, in the controlled settings of the Monza Grand Prix circuit alongside a group of pacing runners who were shielding him from the vagaries of nature.
The 32-year-old's time smashed the official mark of 2:02.57 set by fellow Kenyan Dennis Kimetto in Berlin in 2014.
Two-time Boston Marathon victor Lelisa Desisa, from Ethiopia, and Eritrean half-marathon world record-holder Zersenay Tadese were also part of the Breaking2 project, which started at 5:45 am local time to ensure an optimum temperature for running, but both finished well off the pace.
Afterwards Kipchoge, who had been on course to go under two hours after about 18 miles, said he was happy to have come so close to making history.
But Kipchoge said: "This is history". He's considered the top marathoner in the world right now, and most experts think he has the best shot of anyone to break two hours.
Lelisa Desisa was dropped after 50 minutes, with Zersenay Tadese falling back shortly afterwards.
Monza was chosen by the sportswear company for its gentle corners and favourable climatic conditions, while pacemakers were instructed to shield the trio from the wind and drinks were delivered to runners on scooters to save them from slowing down in collecting bottles.
Former 10,000-meter world record holder Dave Bedford is not buying the new time as the world record. Still, his mark likely won't be ratified as a world record, since Nike didn't obey regulations on pacing and hydrating in its race.
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Kipchoge's run at two hours was an impressive athletic feat.
Two University of OR researchers told news wire Reuters they think humans can run 26.2 miles in less than two hours. He was the first person to run a mile in under four minutes (his time was 3:59.4).
But even with that blisteringly fast time in the books, the two-hour marathon attempt was vulnerable to a number of factors-environmental, psychological, gastrointestinal. Runners were also frequently given hydration and nutrition.
Kirwa shared similar sentiments adding that Kipchoge can only now prepare for the World Championships marathon and not an attempt at the World record this year.
Hoogkamer's team set out a series of mathematical calculations demonstrating how an elite marathon runner could break the two-hour barrier.
The three athletes have each been equipped with a specially-designed marathon shoe - lightweight, cushioned, thick soled, and fitted with a metal plate to reduce the amount the foot flexes.