Scientists store video in DNA of bacteria



Plus, when DNA is separated from a living organism, or that organism dies out around it, and the DNA dries out and is protected from the light (as it is in fossils), that data can be retrieved thousands of years later.

"The ability to turn Cas9 gene editing off is just as important as the ability to turn it on", said Corn, scientific director for biomedicine of the IGI and a UC Berkeley assistant adjunct professor of molecular and cell biology. So we used static images and then we used moving images which we delivered over time to living bacteria, and then we were able to sequence those bacteria and reconstruct the image. The projections showed in this Genetic Testing report are taken from previously proved research methodologies and hypothesis. "Harnessed further, this approach could present a way to cue different types of living cells in their natural tissue environments into recording the formative changes they are undergoing into a synthetically created memory hotspot in their genomes". So for embedding or inserting a GIF into a bacteria's DNA, all we need to do is re-interpret the data of a GIF, which is in computer code, into a DNA code and replace a strand of DNA in the bacteria with this strand of data.

"We want to turn cells into historians", Shipman, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Medical School, said in a statement.

"What this shows us is that we can get the information in, we can get the information out, and we can understand how the timing works, too", Shipman said.

Unlike Cas9, which has become a widely used genome engineering tool, other parts of the CRISPR system have so far not been exploited much technologically.

To study the mechanism behind one of these anti-CRISPR proteins, AcrIIA4, which was co-discovered by Corn's collaborator, Joseph Bondy-Demony, a biologist at the University of California, San Francisco, the team used a variety of methods, including cryo-electron microscopy and human cell culture experiments. The information, stored away as an array of sequences in the CRISPR locus, can be recalled and used to reconstruct a timeline of events.

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After a week, the researchers sequenced DNA regions extracted from the bacteria and played back the movie. This system harnesses the power of the bacterial immune defenses to alter the bacteria's DNA, explains Ian Sample for The Guardian.

Over the course of five days, the authors sequentially treated bacteria with a frame of translated DNA. Harvard scientists in 2012 encoded a book in synthesized DNA, and researchers in March reported that they had stored 200 megabytes of data in it-likely the largest amount yet.

"We want to use neurons to record a molecular history of the brain through development", Shipman said.

Shipman SL, Nivala J, Macklis JD, Church GM. Shipman et al, doi: 10.1038/nature23017. Running an electrical current across cells opens small channels in the cell wall, and then the DNA can flow inside. The currently technology, however, required Shipman's team to manually enter the information.

The study was published on Wednesday in the journal Nature. The mission of NINDS is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. "Storing information in DNA is this side of science fiction".

All jokes aside, while this sounds like a huge advancement for entertainment technology or data archiving, the researchers have something even more inventive in mind.

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